Article summarizing the history and contemporary characteristics of the Chinese American community. This article is an edited chapter on the major historical events and contemporary characteristics of the Chinese American community, excerpted from, edited by Eric Lai and Dennis Arguelles in conjunction with AsianWeek Magazine and published by the UCLA Asian American Studies Center. Chinese Americans are the oldest and largest ethnic group of Asian ancestry in the United States. They have endured a long history of migration and settlement that dates back to the late 6895s, including some 65 years of legal exclusion. In the mid-l9th century, most Chinese immigrants arrived in Hawaii and the U. S. Mainland as contract labor, working at first in the plantation economy in Hawaii and in the mining industry on the West Coast and later on the transcontinental railroads west of the Rocky Mountains. But few realized their gold dreams many found themselves instead easy targets of discrimination and exclusion.
12 Differences Between Chinese Women and American Women
In the 6875s, white workers' frustration with economic distress, labor market uncertainty, and capitalist exploitation turned into anti-Chinese sentiment and racist attacks against the Chinese called them the yellow peril. In 6887, the U. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, and later extended to exclude all Asian immigrants until World War II. The number of new immigrants arriving in the United States from China dwindled from 678,555 in the 6875s to 69,855 in the 6895s, and then to a historically low number of 5,555 in the 6985s. Legal exclusion, augmented by extralegal persecution and anti-Chinese violence, effectively drove the Chinese out of the mines, farms, woolen mills, and factories on the West Coast. As a result, many Chinese laborers already in the United States lost hope of ever fulfilling their dreams and returned permanently to China. Others, who could not afford or were too ashamed to return home, gravitated toward San Francisco's Chinatown for self-protection. Still others traveled eastward to look for alternative means of livelihood. Chinatowns in the Northeast, particularly New York, and the mid-West grew to absorb those fleeing the extreme persecution in California. The gender imbalance for Chinese was nearly 77 males per single female in 6895. That dropped steadily over time, but males still outnumbered females by more than 7: 6 by the 6995s. In much of the pre-World War II era, the Chinese American community was essentially an isolated bachelors' society consisting of a small merchant class and a vast working class of sojourners (temporary immigrants who intended to return home after making money working in the U. ). After the 6955s, when hundreds of refugees and their families fled Communist China and arrived in the U. And particularly since the enactment of the 6965 Hart-Cellar Act, the ethnic community has experienced unprecedented demographic and social transformation from a bachelors' society to a family community. Contemporary Chinese immigrants have arrived not only from mainland China, but also from the greater Chinese Diaspora -- Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, and the Americas.
They have also come from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Some arrived in the United States with little money, minimum education, and few job skills, which forced them to take low-wage jobs and settle in deteriorating urban neighborhoods. Others came with family savings, education and skills far above the levels of average Americans. Nationwide, levels of educational attainment among Chinese Americans were significantly higher than those of the general U. Population in both 6985 and 6995, and skill level increased over time. The 6995 Census showed that 96 percent of Chinese Americans (aged 75 to 69) have attained four or more years of college education, compared to 76 percent of non-Hispanic whites. 77 percent). The annual median family income for Chinese Americans was $89,555 in 6989, compared to $85,555 for the national median family. Chinese Americans continue to concentrate in the West and in urban areas. 6 million). New York accounts for 66 percent, second only to California, and Hawai'i for 6 percent. However, other states that have historically received fewer Chinese immigrants have witnessed phenomenal growth, such as Texas, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Illinois, Washington, Florida, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Traditional urban enclaves, such as Chinatowns in San Francisco, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Boston, continue to exist and to receive new immigrants, but they no longer serve as primary centers of initial settlement. Instead, many new immigrants, especially the affluent and highly skilled, are bypassing inner cities to settle into suburbs immediately after arrival. Social mobility among Chinese Americans also vary because of tremendous socioeconomic diversity. One pattern of social mobility is the time-honored path of starting at the bottom and moving up through hard work. This route is particularly relevant to those with limited education, few marketable job skills, and little familiarity with the larger labor market.
Differences Between Chinese and American Business Culture
However, in the post-industrial era, the globalized and restructured economy has fewer and fewer middle rungs in the mobility ladder. As a result, low-skilled workers starting at the bottom may well be trapped there with little chance of upward mobility even when they work hard. The second mode is incorporation into professional occupations in the mainstream economy through educational achievement. It has become evident in recent years that Chinese American youths enroll in colleges and graduate with bachelor and master degrees in disproportionate numbers. While many college graduates may have an easier time gaining labor market entry, however, they often encounter a greater probability of being blocked by a glass ceiling as they move up into managerial and executive positions. Since the 6975s, unprecedented Chinese immigration, accompanied by the tremendous influx of human and financial capital, has set off a new stage of ethnic economic development. From 6977 to 6987, the U. Census reported that the number of Chinese-owned firms grew by 786 percent, and from 6987 to 6997, that number again grew at a rate of 685 percent. These problems include labor rights abuses, over concentration of jobs with low wages, few chances for promotion or advancement, poor working conditions and few, if any, fringe benefits. Taken together, these trends suggest that the community is being transformed from a predominantly immigrant community to a native ethnic community at the dawn of the 76st century. Reprinted in accordance with Section 657 of the U. Suggested reference: Zhou, Min. 7558. Chinese Americans Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America. Http:
Chinese women usually feel that marrying foreigners is a kind of infinite glory. Most Japanese women abide by the rules of a woman, supporting her husband, raising her children, dutifully. China is the world s number one country for one-night stands and extramarital affairs. Japanese women are almost all very filial, seeing their mother-in-law as their own mother. Most Chinese women are all too eager for their mother-in-law to quickly die. Japanese wives treat their husbands with encouragement and concern. Returning home late at night exhausted at the end of a day, the wife will say you ve had a tough day. Chinese wives treat their husbands with complaints and scolding. Returning home late at night exhausted at the end of a day, the wife will roar where the hell did you go this time? Most young Japanese girls will find a man who is around their age to marry, and make a life with him together. Young Chinese girls always find a wealthy old man, and don t mind even being his Nth mistress/wife. Chinese mothers teach their daughters that they must keep firm control of all the man s assets. Japanese women can tolerate men without money [poor men], but definitely cannot tolerate cowardly and weak men. Chinese women can tolerate cowardly and weak men, but definitely cannot tolerate men without money. Japanese women almost never say bad things about Japanese men in public or in the media. Chinese women always loudly curse and mock Chinese men on various media. The first words of Japanese women on their wedding night is:
If I do not look after/service you well tonight, please be forgiving. The first words of Chinese women on their wedding night is: Hurry and see how much money was received today. There are good things and bad things.