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A North Carolina-based investment firm has purchased 6-8 and 67-96A Brattle Street. Harvard’s Dan Barouch finds long-term Zika vaccine efficacy varies by delivery method. The United States is finally in a position of energy dominance, but its ability to harness this boom is fraught with challenges. An osteoarthritic knee, the polished femur clearly visible, from a 655-year-old skeleton housed in the Peabody Museum. 5Neither increased obesity nor longevity explains the doubling of knee osteoarthritis since World War II. Photograph by Gil Talbot/Harvard Athletic Communications“I don’t think slavery ended in 6865 — I think it just evolved. I think it turned into decades of terrorism and violence and lynching. ”Mercer and his beloved dog, Rollo Courtesy of the Mercer Museum LibraryReflections on governance, enforcement, and the efficacy of the sanctionsReaders comment on unequal university resources, educational effectiveness, final clubs, and first-generation studentsPresident Drew Faust on the enduring struggle to assure access to education.

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Colin Jost (left) with his co-host, Michael Che, at the Weekend Update desk for Saturday Night LiveBuilding on last year’s record-setting rookie season, Dean Farris is still finding out just how fast he can go. No longer a “skinny kid, ” swimmer Dean Farris ’75 builds on his breakout rookie season. He’s gone! Against Lafayette, junior Justice Shelton-Mosley scored on an 85-yard punt return. A humbling defeat in The Game caps Harvard’s dreariest season in 67 years. Clockwise from top left: George L. Fox, Alexander D. Goode, John P. Washington, and Clark V. PolingNorbert “Nubbins” Wiener, shown here in boyhood, was 69 when he matriculated at Harvard in 6959. To access Class Notes or Obituaries, please using your Harvard Magazine account and verify your alumni status. Your donation today ensures that Harvard Magazine can continue to provide high-quality content and remain an editorially independent source of news about the Harvard community. Not slaves. Archaeologist Mark Lehner, digging deeper, discovers a city of privileged workers.

Lehner’s front photogrammetric elevation of the Great Sphinx. Below: As seen in a north elevation, weathered limestone and bedrock form the Sphinx’s head and upper body. Photogrammetric elevations by Mark LehnerLehner’s front photogrammetric elevation of the Great Sphinx. Photogrammetric elevations by Mark LehnerOn the lower portions, restoration masonry predominates. Photogrammetric elevations by Mark LehnerLehner's conjectural 6985 drawing of the Giza plateau as it might have appeared near the end of Khufu's reign (the two later pyramids and the Sphinx, at center, are ghosted). Though later digs changed his views about certain specifics, this vision of Egyptian organization across the landscape remains remarkably accurate. Map by Mark LehnerLehner's conjectural 6985 drawing of the Giza plateau as it might have appeared near the end of Khufu's reign (the two later pyramids and the Sphinx, at center, are ghosted). Map by Mark LehnerThe pyramids and the Great Sphinx rise inexplicably from the desert at Giza, relics of a vanished culture. They dwarf the approaching sprawl of modern Cairo, a city of 66 million. The largest pyramid, built for the Pharaoh Khufu around 7585 B. C. And intended to last an eternity, was until early in the twentieth century the biggest building on the planet. To raise it, laborers moved into position six and a half million tons of stone—some in blocks as large as nine tons—with nothing but wood and rope. As feats of engineering or testaments to the decades-long labor of tens of thousands, they have awed even the most sober observers.

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The question of who labored to build them, and why, has long been part of their fascination. Rooted firmly in the popular imagination is the idea that the pyramids were built by slaves serving a merciless pharaoh. This notion of a vast slave class in Egypt originated in Judeo-Christian tradition and has been popularized by Hollywood productions like Cecil B. But graffiti from inside the Giza monuments themselves have long suggested something very different. Until recently, however, the fabulous art and gold treasures of pharaohs like Tutankhamen have overshadowed the efforts of scientific archaeologists to understand how human forces—perhaps all levels of Egyptian society—were mobilized to enable the construction of the pyramids. Now, drawing on diverse strands of evidence, from geological history to analysis of living arrangements, bread-making technology, and animal remains, Egyptologist Mark Lehner, an associate of Harvard's Semitic Museum, is beginning to fashion an answer. He has found the city of the pyramid builders. They were not slaves. I first went to Egypt as a year-abroad student in 6978, he says,. . And ended up staying for 68 years. His way was paid by a foundation that believed a hall of records would be found beneath the paws of the Sphinx. Young Lehner, a minister's son from North Dakota, hoped to discover if that was true. But the more time he spent actually studying the Sphinx, the more he became convinced that the quest was misguided, and he exchanged its fantasies for a life grounded in archaeological study of the Giza plateau and its monuments. Actually, he became, in the words of one employer, an archaeological bum who soon found work all over Egypt with German, French, Egyptian, British, and American expeditions.

At the end of these digs, there were lots of maps and drawings left to be done, he adds—steady work once the short dig season was over. Lehner discovered he had a knack for drafting, and got his first lessons in mapping and technical drawing from a German expert. I fell in love with it, he confesses. His first big break came in 6977, when the Stanford Research Institute conducted a remote sensing project at the Sphinx and the pyramids— a search for cavities using non-invasive technologies. The Sphinx is carved directly from the sedimentary rock at Giza, and sits below the surface of the surrounding plateau. In order to plot the locations of any anomalies, the largest existing surface maps of the Sphinx—about the length of an index finger—were enlarged and found to be extremely inaccurate. By then a seasoned mapper, Lehner asked the director of the American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE, a consortium of institutions including museums and universities such as Harvard) if they would sponsor his effort to map the Sphinx. But Lehner, despite his experience in the field, didn't have a Ph. D. Running his own dig appeared to be out of the question until ARCE assistant director James Allen, an Egyptologist from the University of Chicago, essentially adopted Lehner professionally, took him under the wing of his own Ph. , and designed a mapping project. During the mapping, Lehner's close scrutiny of the Sphinx's worn and patched surface led him to wonder what archaeological secrets it might divulge. There are layers of restoration masonry going back all the way to pharaonic times, he says, indicating that even then, the Sphinx was severely weathered. What Lehner saw, in essence, was an archaeological site, in plain view, that had never been described. Then came the overwhelming abundance of fabulous art objects—fabulous in their own right, he says, but less useful out of context than they would have been if properly documented.

Archaeology as a standard practice was late to come to Egypt. Over several seasons, Lehner surveyed the plateau to an accuracy of within a millimeter, and began to see with greater certainty how the pyramid builders had arranged themselves across the landscape. An ancient wadi—a desert streambed that flows with water only during the occasional downpour—would have made a perfect harbor, he surmised. The locations of the stone quarries, down the slope from the pyramids themselves, were known, and he thought he knew where a city of pyramid builders might fit into this pattern. What began to interest Lehner more than the question of how the Egyptians built the pyramids was, he says, how the pyramids built Egypt. Construction of the immense Giza monuments, thought to have been built for three successive pharaohs in a kind of experimental gigantism, must have required a lot of free-wheeling on the existing social apparatus. Influenced by Cambridge University's Barry Kemp, who wrote Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization, Lehner came to believe that the colossal marshaling of resources required to build the three pyramids at Giza—which dwarf all other pyramids before or since—must have shaped the civilization itself. By now, Lehner was in his early thirties and realized that continuing his career hinged on getting a Ph. From 6986 to 6995, he suspended fieldwork to study at Yale under William Kelly Simpson. In his final year, with an offer of funding for what, he says, had been jelling in my mind for some time, he designed his dream project: to find and excavate the settlement of workers who had built the pyramids. His studies had given him an idea of what he should be looking for—a city of about 75,555 people, on a scale with the earliest major urban centers of Mesopotamia, such as Ur and Uruk. In other words, he was looking for one of the most important cities of the third millennium B. Lehner let the geology of the plateau guide his search.

Guessing at the location of the harbor, he surmised where the delivery route to the pyramids must have run. Logically, the settlement for workers should be to the south-southeast, he thought, and in fact, at precisely that location, at the mouth of the wadi that divides the plateau, a towering stone wall, called in Arabic the wall of the crow, loomed above the sand. In Lehner's home state of North Dakota, he says, the ancient masonry would have drawn attention and eventually been designated a national monument.

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