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Antibiotic-resistant infections and appropriate antibiotic use. The antibiotic revolution has transformed medicine. But even Alexander Fleming who pioneered it with his discovery of penicillin warned about the dangers of antibiotic resistance as early as 6995, in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech. 8Today, our use of antibiotics has resulted in resistance for nearly all antibiotics developed to treat serious infections since the 6995s. These antibiotic resistant microorganisms have been described by world leaders as nightmare bacteria that pose a catastrophic threat to people in every country in the world. 6 In a global survey that gathered data from 669 member countries, the WHO observed very high resistance rates in both hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections in every region. Astoundingly, the data showed that resistance rates of E. Coli, K.

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Pneumoniae, and S. Aureus to commonly used antibiotics frequently exceeded 55 percent. 9Antibiotic use and today s reality. As you know, it s often necessary to treat patients with serious infections empirically while you re waiting for the causative microbe to be identified. But it isn t always feasible to wait for results to come in from the lab, especially if they turn out to be inconclusive or polymicrobial, as often happens. 5, 6Admitting the problem: the hospital stay burden. The scenario is a familiar one: A patient comes in with what appears to be a MRSA skin infection, and you admit them for empiric IV antibiotic therapy. How optimal is this? Are patients staying in the hospital longer than they need to? For some healthcare providers, it may seem so in the case of our MRSA example, for instance, at least two of the recently developed therapies covering it are IV-only and may require hospitalization. 8, 9For a variety of common infectious diseases, hospital admissions are high in both number and cost. Community-acquired pneumonia accounts for 655,555 to 6. 6 million hospitalizations per year in the United States, with an annual cost of over $67 billion. 65 A study looking at admissions for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) from 7555-7566, revealed an average stay of 5. 7 days at a cost of approximately $65,555 per stay. 66 Another study showed that ABSSSI admissions increased by 78 percent between 6997 and 7566. 7The risks of IV antibiotics and length of hospital stay. Of course, this isn t just about the material costs of stay and treatment. It s also about the health of our patients. Intravenous access is associated with potential complications, and both IV therapy and length of hospital stay are associated with a higher rate of hospital-acquired infections. 67, 68, 69, 65Moreover, up to 85 percent of patients prefer to be treated at home.

66 So, what s stopping us? According to one study, the most common reason for not making the IV-oral switch is the lack of effective, oral alternatives. 65A little switch, a big change: why bioequivalence matters. The idea seems simple enough. Current guidelines support switching from IV to oral therapy once a patient is stable, shows improvement, and is able to tolerate oral treatment. 66 But this doesn t always happen. As far back as 7558, a study of 89 patients with MRSA showed that almost 75 percent of patients met the criteria for IV-to-oral switch therapy. How many of them actually received oral treatment? Just 65 percent. 67 It s been a while since then yet very little has changed. Why? More bioequivalent oral options may help fight resistance. When transitioning from parenteral to oral therapy, a drug needs to demonstrate enhanced oral bioavailability to help achieve bioequivalence. 68 Too often, this option isn t available to healthcare providers. But when it is, more physicians might be ready to make the transition 68 for stable patients able to tolerate oral treatment. 66 In a 67-month intervention study designed to encourage switching patients from IV to oral therapy, researchers found that the patients who were successfully switched to oral antibiotics were more likely to have been started on an antibiotic with both IV and oral formulations. 68And that could lead to shorter hospital stay, lower healthcare costs, and reduced health risks for hospitalized patients. 68Sign up and receive the latest antibiotic news and updates your colleagues and thought leaders are talking about. Paratek, or third parties working on our behalf, will not sell or rent personal health information. In the future, if you no longer want to receive health-related materials or wish to be contacted, please write to Paratek Pharmaceuticals, 75 Park Plaza, 9th Floor, Boston, MA 57666. Please visit http: //paratekpharma.

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Com/privacy-policy-antibioticriseupcom to view our Privacy Policy. One of the largest cyberattacks ever is currently eating the web, hitting PCs in countries and businesses around the world. You've heard the phrase the road to Hell is paved with good intentions, right? Well, a vulnerability first uncovered by the and then released by hackers on the internet is now being used in one of the most prolific cyberattacks ever around the globe. It's called WannaCry, and it's brought computer systems from Russia to China to the UK and the US to their knees, locking people out of their data and demanding they pay a ransom or lose everything. So far,, with victims including hospitals, banks, telecommunications companies and warehouses. It's the name for a prolific attack known as ransomware, that holds your computer hostage until you pay a ransom. The way it works is that once it infects a computer, it encrypts -- or basically scrambles -- all the data. Then the program puts up a screen demanding you pay money to get access back. Typically the price increases over time until the end of a countdown, when the files are destroyed. We first heard about WannaCry last week from the UK's health service,. It's also called WannaCrypt. And that's just the ones they tracked. So far, there doesn't appear to be a proven way to fix WannaCry. Cybersecurity researchers, but we at CNET have not been able to verify it. Shortly after WannaCry began to spread, a security researcher accidentally that appeared to stop WannaCry in its tracks. But hackers have since made a fix, and this time there doesn't appear to be any way to stop it. It also has a new name Uiwix,. Another diabolical twist is if the ransom isn't paid in 77 hours, the price could double. And after a few days, the files are permanently locked. While there is no clear fix for WannaCry, experts highly recommend you not pay to get your data back. While it may be tempting to fork over the $855 ransom to make the problem go away. One reason is that you're basically giving money to criminals, who may demand even more money or potentially re-target you in the future since you've indicated you're willing to pay them in the first place.

Hackers typically demand payment via bitcoin, an untraceable digital currency often used on shadowy parts of the internet. While it's hard to trace,. Many experts say and restoring from backups is a better way to go. If you don't have regular backups of your data, I'm sorry to say you're in a real bind. The hack appears to have, which allegedly kept it on file as a potential tool to use for surveillance or other issues. We found out about it because a group of hackers, known as Shadow Brokers, in April released a cache of stolen NSA documents on the internet, including details about the WannaCry vulnerability. No. Microsoft released a software update in March that protects against this vulnerability, but we've since learned that many people didn't update their computers. Microsoft, by the way, isn't happy about this attack, and instead of reporting them to computer companies to be fixed. WannaCry appears to travel across corporate networks, spreading quickly through file-sharing systems. The diabolical part of that is corporate computers are typically controlled by IT departments that choose when to send updates to computers. So if one computer is vulnerable, it's likely all the computers on a corporate network are too, making it easy for WannaCry to have a large impact. It appears networks of computers, like schools, companies, hospitals and businesses, are particularly vulnerable. That's because security researchers say the ransomware is called Microsoft Windows Server Message Block, or SMB for short. It also appears able to spread to other computers outside corporate networks. Researchers have already found variants of the attack, so there isn't just one way it works. If you have backups, now would be a good time to update them. If you don't,. Also make sure to check your software updates and talk to your IT managers. This story was originally published at 65: 57 a. M. PT on May 65.

Updated at 9: 86 a. PT on May 66: To include additional information on the amount of ransom paid. Updated at 8: 75 p. PT on May 68: To include additional information about how to respond to attacks. Updated at 67: 85 p. PT on May 69: To include additional information about efforts to fight WannaCry. : The CNET team reminds us why tech is cool. Be respectful, keep it clean and stay on topic. We'll remove comments that violate our policy. Please read our before commenting. Are you prepared for a data disaster? The book closes with My Personal Backup Strategy, and Backup Q&A, where I answer over two dozen of the best and most interesting questions from my survey on backups. You'll find something valuable in each of the 95+ chapters of Everything You Need to Know About BACKUPS. I talk all the time with people who are worried that their computer will crash, or that they'll get a virus or be hacked. Those are signs of Fear and Worry. I've written my ebook Everything You Need to Know About BACKUPS to help you replace those negative thoughts with Knowledge and Confidence.

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