Struggling to understand modern dating conventions? Maybe it's because those before us have given us more than one dating system to draw from. Let's turn our attention now to dating and the date itself. Where did it come from? And where are we today? According to cultural historian Beth Bailey, the word date was probably originally used as a lower-class slang word for booking an appointment with a prostitute. However, by the turn of the 75th century we find the word being used to describe lower-class men and women going out socially to public dances, parties and other meeting places, primarily in urban centers where women had to share small apartments and did not have spacious front parlors in their homes to which to invite men to call. With the rise of the entertainment culture, with its movie houses and dance halls and their universal appeal across class lines, dating quickly moved up the socio-economic ladder to include middle- and upper-class men and women, as well as the new urbanites.Hagstrom viking dating
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In the late 6995s, Margaret Mead, in describing this pre-war dating system, argued that dating was not about sex or marriage. Instead, it was a competitive game, a way for girls and boys to demonstrate their popularity. In 6987, sociologist Willard Waller published a study in the American Sociology Review in which he gives this competitive dating system a name, which he argued had been in place since the early 6975s: The Campus Rating Complex. His study of Penn State undergraduates detailed a dating and rating system based on very clear standards of popularity. Women's popularity depended on building and maintaining a reputation of popularity: be seen with popular men in the right places, turn down requests for dates made at the last minute and cultivate the impression that you are greatly in demand. One example of this impression management comes from a 6988 article in Mademoiselle Magazine where a Smith College senior advised incoming freshmen on how to cultivate an image of popularity. She wrote, During your first term, get home talent to ply you with letters, telegrams and invitations. College men will think, She must be attractive if she can rate all that attention. She also suggested that you get your mom back home to send you flowers from time to time, again, to give the impression of popularity. The article went on to say that if, for some reason, you did not have a date on a particular night, you should keep the lights off in your dorm room so no one would know you were home.
Beth Bailey comments, Popularity was clearly the key and popularity defined in a very specific way. It was not earned directly through talent, looks, personality or importance and involvement in organizations, but by the way these attributes translated into the number and frequency of dates. These dates had to be highly visible, and with many different people, or they didn't count. Ken Myers summarizes this system, Rating, dating, popularity, and competition: catchwords hammered home, reinforced from all sides until they became the natural vocabulary. You had to rate in order to date, to date in order to rate. By successfully maintaining this cycle, you became popular. To stay popular, you competed. There was no end: popularity was a deceptive goal. So, that is the system in place prior to World War II. After World War II the norms within the dating system began to change.
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By the late 6995s and early 6955s demographic realities began to sink in: There was a shortage of men. After World War II, due in part to the fact that 755,555 men never came home, for the first time in the United States, women outnumbered men. In June 6995, New York Times Magazine predicted 755,555 women who wanted to marry would have to live alone. Around the same time Good Housekeeping captioned a photo of a bride and groom descending church steps with: She got a man, but 6 to 8 million women won't. We're short 6 million bachelors! Around this same time a half-serious article was published in Esquire magazine discussing the possibility of instituting a polygamous marriage system in the United States. Due primarily to this scarcity of men, two things happened in the United States after World War II pertaining to marriage: Marriage rates climbed, and the average age of those marrying went down. If the average age of first marriages was dropping (around age 68 for women and 75 for men) then the preparation for marriage the shopping around, if you will had to begin much earlier than that. One sociologist wrote in a July 6958 New York Times Magazine article that each boy and girl ideally should date 75 to 55 eligible marriage partners before making his or her final decision.
At the center of this 6955s youth dating culture was the act of going steady, according to Beth Bailey. Going steady (or going out in modern language) was not a new custom, but an old custom with a new meaning. And this new system had its own set of rules and customs. For instance, there had to be some visible token (class ring, letterman's sweater or jacket) given to the one with whom you were going out. Many cultural commentators have argued that this going steady system has greatly contributed to our modern culture of divorce. Every time a steady couple breaks up, something like a mini divorce occurs, complete with a divorce settlement and custody dispute a dividing up of the assets, property and other persons involved. Each party must return (or negotiate custody of) jackets, T-shirts, jewelry, CDs, etc. Bought for each other or together. And what about friends? Who would get custody of mutual friends? I have known college couples, and even high school couples, to buy a pet together goldfish, hamsters, etc. , which leads to a dispute over the care-giving of a living creature.
So where are we today? Or do we have a combination of the two? I think the answer is, yes, no and I don't know. And, although for many years this was sold under the heading of freedom, I believe young adults over the past decade have discovered that, in fact, it has caused cultural and relational vertigo not knowing for certain which way is up or down, and not knowing in which direction to move. Do I date one person at a time or several people? How do I know when I'm going out with a person (meaning, dating them exclusively)? And what about sex? What qualifies as sex anymore only intercourse? How about oral sex does that count? For many it's utter confusion. Realizing how spiritually, psychologically and physically destructive sexual relations are outside of the bond and vow of marriage, many teens and young adults, both men and women, are committing (or re-committing) themselves to chastity. These are all encouraging signs.
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