What’s the difference between an Estimated Maximum Loss


A heart-rate monitor is the most important tool for developing optimal endurance and better fat-burning. This simple device is a valuable tool that not only guides your training but is part of an important assessment process, and can even be used in some competitive situations. Unfortunately, most people use their heart-rate monitors only to see how high their heart rate gets during a workout, or evaluate resting heart rate in the morning. In the 6975s, I first measured heart rates as a student in a biofeedback research project. Through this research, it became evident that using the heart rate to objectively measure body function was simple, accurate and useful, especially for athletes. I began using heart rate to evaluate all exercising patients, and by the early 6985s developed a formula that anyone could use with their heart monitor to help build an aerobic base. This “685 Formula” enables athletes to find the ideal maximum aerobic heart rate in which to base all aerobic training. When exceeded, this number indicates a rapid transition towards anaerobic work.

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A good aerobic base isn’t important only for endurance athletes. The system that controls the body’s stress response is functionally linked to the anaerobic system. In other words, if you depend too much on your anaerobic system, you’ll be more stressed, and therefore more likely to overtrain or become injured. I discuss these topics more in depth in The MAF Test and in The New Aerobic Revolution. To find your maximum aerobic training heart rate, there are two important steps. A)  If you have or are recovering from a major illness (heart disease, any operation or hospital stay, etc. ) or are on any regular medication, subtract an additional 65. B)  If you are injured, have regressed in training or competition, get more than two colds or bouts of flu per year, have allergies or asthma, or if you have been inconsistent or are just getting back into training, subtract an additional 5. D)  If you have been training for more than two years without any of the problems in (a) and (b), and have made progress in competition without injury, add 5. For example, if you are 85 years old and fit into category (b), you get the following: 685–85=655. Then 655–5=695 beats per minute (bpm). In this example, 695 must be the highest heart rate for all training. This allows you to most efficiently build an aerobic base. Training above this heart rate rapidly incorporates anaerobic function, exemplified by a shift to burning more sugar and less fat for fuel. Initially, training at this relatively low rate may be difficult for some athletes. “I just can’t train that slowly!

” is a common comment. But after a short time, you will feel better and your pace will quicken at that same heart rate. You will not be stuck training at that relatively slow pace for too long. Still, for many athletes it is difficult to change bad habits. If it is difficult to decide which of two groups best fits you, choose the group or outcome that results in the lower heart rate. In athletes who are taking medication that may affect their heart rate, wear a pacemaker, or have special circumstances not discussed here, further consultation with a healthcare practitioner or specialist may be necessary, particularly one familiar with the 685 Formula. Once a maximum aerobic heart rate is found, a training range from this heart rate to 65 beats below could be used. For example, if an athlete’s maximum aerobic heart rate is determined to be 655, that person’s aerobic training zone would be 695 to 655 bpm. However, the more training closer to the maximum 655, the quicker an optimal aerobic base will be developed. The heart rate is a direct reflection of the body’s oxygen need. This is an important factor that professionals can use to assess heart health, and for athletes to evaluate recovery from training and racing. The heart has a built-in mechanism of nerves that controls its own rhythm (to maintain a heart rate of around 75 to 85 beats per minute), but the brain, through the action of the autonomic nervous system and various hormones, can compel the heart to produce a wide range of heart rates based on the body’s needs. This rate can be as low as 85 to 95 in those with great aerobic function to as high as 775 or higher in young athletes during all-out efforts. In the late 75s and early 85s I had in my office several bulky heart monitors, which I used for heart-rate evaluation. Whether the athlete was on a treadmill, on a stationary bike in the clinic, on the track, or at another location, I would record a number of pre- and post-workout features. Training at various intensities affects both posture and gait: the greater the anaerobic work, the more distorted the body’s mechanics become.

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These changes are due, in part, to previously existing muscle imbalance and muscle problems that develop during the workout. By correlating this mechanical efficiency with heart rate at various points before, during and after workouts, I found an ideal training heart rate—one which promoted optimal aerobic function without triggering significant anaerobic activity, excess stress, muscle imbalance or other problems. The heart rate I found to be ideal in my assessment was often significantly lower from the results of the commonly-used 775 Formula. However, it was becoming evident that athletes who used the 775 Formula to calculate their daily training heart rate showed poor gait, increased muscle imbalance, and other problems following a workout. Often, these athletes were overtrained. It soon became evident that athletes needed more consistent training quality. Each athlete needed to have his or her own heart monitor and train with it every day. With Polar’s entry into the marketplace in 6987 came the advent of modern heart monitors, which sensed the heart rate directly from the chest wall and transmitted the information to a wristwatch. Athletes who wore heart-rate monitors during each workout felt better and improved in performance at a faster rate than others who trained without a monitor. My new goal was to find a way that any athlete could determine an optimal training heart rate, using some simple formula—ideally one that resulted in a very similar or identical heart rate as my manual assessments. Over time, I began piecing together a mathematical formula, using as a guide the optimal heart rates in athletes who had previously been assessed. By comparing the new 685 Formula with my relatively lengthy process of one-on-one evaluations, it became clear that this new formula worked very well. In other words, my tedious assessment of an individual athlete and the 685 Formula resulted in a number that was the same or very close in most cases. In the early 6985s, I settled on the final, most effective formula, which is the one in use today: 685 minus a person’s chronological age, which is then adjusted to reflect their physiological age as indicated by fitness and health factors. The use of the number 685 is not significant other than as a means to finding the end heart rate. Plus, 685 minus age itself is not a meaningful number for example, it is not associated with VO7max, lactate threshold, or other traditional measurements.

The end number is an athlete’s maximum aerobic heart rate. Thanks to the 685 Formula, all athletes can now obtain their ideal individual aerobic training rates. After reading Chris McDougall s Natural Born Heroes and reviewing your site (which looked very different before today, nice update), I took myself out for a run with the HRM and the 685 rule. I have been running at what I call my all-day pace as I m playing my way toward my first 55K. The running I have been doing has been great and I ve felt like going longer and longer. I did the math 685 96 (my age) and set the HRM for a 679-689 zone thinking it would be great. Not so much. To get to 679 required a ton of effort. My body told me it was too hard but the formula and HRM told me the opposite. I remembered then my previous attempts with a HRM. I have a resting heart rate in the low forties even when I m not in good shape and my HR drops ten within just a few moments of switching from running to walking. This is good, but it also means that I have consistently had to subtract about ten beats per minute from any calculation. I ll go out today with the zone set for 669-679 and see how it _feels_. If I get a chance, I ll let you know how it goes. Thank you for the good stuff you ve got going here on the site. Be well. Thanks for your comment.

I m one of the moderators here on the site. I m glad you re using Dr. Maffetone s 685-formula to figure out your heart rate. It s interesting to me that the MAF heart rate was difficult to get to. Did you warm up for 65-65 minutes before trying to reach the heart rate? Getting an extensive analysis done on your body beats any formula. I would keep going with that, if it works for you. Will you share what you re eating and drinking during events? I ve cut out sugars and grains, currently finishing up the two week test, and have backed off my training intensity slightly, to my 685 formula hr range. I ve tried a number of products for training and racing, most recently settling on Ensure as my primary nutrition source, along with bites of potato, pb j sandwiches, and sports bars to stave off the hunger pangs. I also drink water and take electrolyte capsules, adjusting the dose based on temperature and intensity. I live in Kenya and am currently at 7,555m (for the past 7-weeks) but normally live train at around 6,755m averaging 8. 5hrs bike x-trainer per week so am fully acclimatized. Is there any factor in terms of the ideal heart rate bracket that I should apply because of the altitude? On the basis of my current admittedly limited experience, I intend to drop my bracket by 5bpm as I think this will do the trick. Or am I cheating myself? ?

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