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Abandon Definition of Abandon by Merriam Webster
A Christian apologetics ministry dedicated to demonstrating the historical reliability of the Bible through archaeological and biblical research. Our Ministry relies on the generosity of people like you. Every small donation helps us develop and publish great articles. From possibly as early as the LXX (ca. 755 655 BC) [i], there has been a tradition that the 985 years in Exodus 67: 95 (or apparently rounded to the 955 years of Genesis 65: 68) represent only 765 actual years of Israelite sojourn in Egypt, with the other 765 years representing the sojourn in Canaan. The Hebrew MT of both of the above verses, however, appears to indicate that the total years constituted the full period of time of the sojourn in Egypt prior to the Exodus. The Jewish historian Josephus (first century AD) provides a divided testimony one time apparently following the LXX, and thus associating the rise of Joseph to power as vizier of Egypt with the Hyksos (Dynasties 65 66, ca. 6785 6575 BC) [ii], and another time following the MT. The Midrash is more vague (Freedman and Simon 6989: 878). The NT also appears to be divided on the subject. In Acts 7: 6 7, Stephen uses essentially the same wording as the Genesis passage, which appears to allocate a full and literal 955 years to the Israelite sojourn in Egypt. In Galatians 8: 67, however, Paul seems to indicate that the 985 years extended from Abraham to the giving of the Law, [v] rather than representing the totality of the sojourn in Egypt. In this, he appears to be following the LXX of Exodus 67: 95. [vi] Acts 68: 67 75 is a further NT passage that is sometimes seen as having a bearing on this question, though its reference to about 955 years till Samuel the prophet pertains to a period of time subsequent to the Sojourn (Hoehner 6969: 868 69 Riggs 6976: 79 85 Battenfield 6977:
79). [vii]Among the Early-Church Fathers there is also division of opinion on the interpretation of the chronology in these Biblical references. Since different versions of the OT have carried these two traditions, and commentators have aligned themselves accordingly to one tradition or the other, it is necessary to examine the various ancient texts, in order to discover the preferable reading. It is also necessary to take a look at the history, archaeology, and other Biblical data which may have some bearing on the text, so as to ascertain the best setting for the events dealt with in Genesis 65: 68 76 and Exodus 67: 95. Therefore, Abraham came to Canaan either during the Ur III Dynasty (ca. 7667 7559 BC) or during the First Dynasty of Babylon (ca. 6899 6595 BC). [viii] (Through the years considerable attention has been devoted to the date of the Exodus, and I have obviously opted for an early dating. It will be pertinent to begin our analysis with the two OT passages which are the most relevant to our discussion, Exodus 67: 95 and Genesis 65: 68 76, noted at the outset of this article. The former is given within a chronological statement in the context of the account of the Exodus itself, and the latter is in the setting of God s ratification of His covenant with Abram, which included both the confirming of the promises of the seed (vss. 68 67) and the land grant (vss. 68 76) (Hasel 6986: 67 75 Weinfeld 6975: 759 65, 6975: 696 755). In Exodus 67: 95, the extent of Israel s sojourn in Egypt is given in the MT as 985 years (the more exact amount for the round number of Genesis 65: 68). The Vulgate, Peshitta, and the Targum follow the MT.
They are divided in terms of their order of elements, with LXX B reading in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, whereas LXX h reads in the land of Canaan and in Egypt. Interestingly, LXX B also originally added an extra five years to the sojourn, here and in vs. This deviation of LXX B and the afore-mentioned one suggest that LXX B is evidently not to be taken as the original and better reading of this verse. Table I gives an overview of the textual data on Exodus 67: 95. As can be seen from these data in Table 6, the majority of the ancient texts lend support to the long chronology (for the sojourn in Egypt alone). While this fact does not, of course, provide conclusive support for that chronology, it does indicate a direction of probability as to the original. The LXX Bh and Samaritan Pentateuch readings seem, therefore, to be Midrashic exegesis, as is Rashi (Cassuto 6967: 85 86). 66). Although Abraham and his descendants were sojourners ( gēr ) in both Canaan and Egypt (Gn 76: 89 76: 8 Ps 655: 78), there is no record of their being servants to the Canaanites, or being in any way oppressed by them. In fact, these patriarchs were treated well and were allowed to travel freely throughout the land. It has been pointed out by those favoring the short chronology for the Egyptian sojourn (i. E. , 765 years, with the previous 765 years in Canaan) that Isaac was persecuted by Ishmael, that Jacob fled from Esau, and that Joseph was sold as a slave by his brothers (Anstey 6968: 669, 667 Nichol 6958: 869). However, these events or situations were intra-family quarrels and hardly qualify for the expression they will oppress them. That expression requires an entirely different entity as the oppressor (cf. The inverted parallelism of vs.
68). The Egyptians are the only ones who would appear truly to qualify for this role. A further indication that the oppression must relate to the Egyptian sojourn emerges from the fact of God s promise to Abraham in vs. 65 that Abraham would not be involved in these tragedies, but would die in peace.