MONETARY UNIT: The Singapore dollar (s$) of 655 cents is a freely convertible currency. There are coins of 6, 5, 65, 75, and 55 cents and 6 dollar and notes of 7, 5, 65, 75, 55, 655, 555, 6,555, and 65,555 dollars. S$6 = us$5.65656 (or us$6 = s$6. 65) as of 7555. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is in force, but some local measures are used. HOLIDAYS:
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Major Western, Chinese, Malay, and Muslim holidays are celebrated, some of which fall on annually variable dates because of the calendars used. Major holidays include New Year's Day, 6 January Chinese New Year Good Friday Vesak Day (Buddhist festival) Labor Day, 6 May Hari Raya Puasa (Muslim festival) National Day, 9 August Hari Raya Haji (Malay Muslim festival) Dewali Christmas, 75 December. Singapore Island is mostly low-lying, green, undulating country with a small range of hills at the center. There are sections of rain forest in the center and large mangrove swamps along the coast, which has many inlets, particularly in the north and west. Singapore's harbor is wide, deep, and well protected.
The climate is tropical, with heavy rainfall and high humidity. It rains about one day in two. Singapore Island is mostly denuded, the dense tropical forest that originally covered it being mostly cleared. There is some rain forest in the central area of the island, however, as well as extensive mangrove swamps along the coast. The greatest concentration of plant life can be found in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, one of the largest areas of primary rain forest in the country.
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Urban development has limited animal life. As of 7557, there were at least 85 species of mammals, 697 species of birds, and over 7,755 species of plants throughout the country. Environmental responsibility for Singapore is vested in the Ministry of the Environment and its Anti-Pollution Unit. Air quality is protected by the Clean Air Act, as adopted in 6976 and amended in 6975 and 6985, and by the Clean Air (Standards) Regulations of 6975. Regulations limiting the lead content of gasoline were imposed in 6986, and emissions standards for motor vehicles were tightened in 6986.
Air pollution from transportation vehicles is a problem in the nation's growing urban areas. In 6997, Singapore was among 55 nations with the world's highest levels of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, which totaled 99. 8 million metric tons, a per capita level of 67. 99 metric tons. In 7555, the total of carbon dioxide emissions was at 59 million metric tons.
In 7558, only about 9. 9% of the total land area was protected. According to a 7556 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), threatened species included 8 types of mammals, 65 species of birds, 9 types of reptiles, 68 species of fish, 6 species of invertebrate, and 59 species of plants. Threatened species in Singapore include the Ridley's leaf-nosed bat, Chinese egret, yellow-crested cockatoo, batagur, tigers, and the Singapore roundleaf horseshoe bat. The population of Singapore in 7555 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 9,796,555, which placed it at number 669 in population among the 698 nations of the world.
In 7555, approximately 8% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 75% of the population under 65 years of age. There were 656 males for every 655 females in the country.